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Biographie What is a PCBA and How to Create Your Custom PCBA?

Introduction of PCBA

A Printed Circuit Board Assembly (PCBA) is a piece of electrical equipment that supports and connects the electrical and electronic components. It uses conductive tracks, pads, and features that are etched from copper layers, laminated on or between the sheet layers of a substrate that is non-conductive. The components are usually soldered on the PCB to connect them electrically and mechanically.

How to Get a Custom PCBA

Step1. The first step in designing a custom PCB is in creating a schematic view. ;

The required component is placed on a canvas and their pins are connected with lines that represent the electrical connections. The components usually are taken from a component library which is a part of the design software.

There may be multiple variations of the same components depending upon the type of package being used e.g. dual inline package or a surface mounted chip. The packages may seem the same in the schematic view but are very different in the layout view where the board is actually designed.

Apart from the components and their electrical connections, power, and ground signals are also needed. Also, connectors have to be placed on the PCB to make a place for power and ground. The board also needs to be connected to external devices such as potentiometers and LEDs etc.

Step 2. Once everything is placed in its place, an electric rule check is run to ensure no evident faults. ;

These may include breaks in wires or connections or any missing connection to ground or power etc. Once the schematic is done, the board layout view is checked.

Step 3. The components are moved at proper places that make good sense.

Step 4. For the board production, signals are assigned to each layer and varying signals on a single layer cannot touch.

Step 5. After the signals are laid, a design rule check needs to run to ensure proper placement of holes, traces, etc. These rules can be customized as well.

Step 6. If the design is approved, the design files can be uploaded. ;

Automatic Guided Vehicles

Computer-controlled and wheel-based, automatic guided vehicles (AGV) are load carriers that travel along the floor of a facility without an onboard operator or driver. Their movement is directed by a combination of software and sensor-based guidance systems. Because they move on a predictable path with precisely controlled acceleration and deceleration and include automatic obstacle detection bumpers, AGV ;provides safe movement of loads. Typical AGV applications include transportation of raw materials, work-in-process, and finished goods in support of manufacturing production lines, and storage/retrieval or other movements in support of picking in warehousing and distribution applications.

What Is an Automatic Guided Vehicle?

There are several types of AGVs. These include:

Automated carts - The simplest kind of AGV with minimal features for the lowest cost implementation.

Unit load AGVs - Individual vehicles that transport loads (typically pallets, bins, carts, or bundles) on forks or on the AGV's deck. Roll-handling AGVs specifically handle heavy rolls of steel or paper.

Tugger AGVs – Powered units pulling a series of non-motorized trailers that each carries a load.

Automated forklift AGVs - An existing forklift truck whose controls have been converted to allow unmanned operation

Typically battery-powered, AGV systems consist of multiple vehicles that navigate along pre-defined guide paths. Vehicles navigate in the facility using several guidance technologies including floor-surface mounted magnetic tape or bars, lasers, optical sensors, and magnet/gyroscope-based inertial guidance. These guidance technologies make it easy to change the routes and expand the AGV system in response to facility changes for a flexible and scalable material handling solution.

For real-time control and monitoring of multiple AGVs, computer-based software uses wireless connections to collect data about each unit’s current location, then interfaces with software for destination and routing logic. The software directs the vehicles' travel by wirelessly communicating specific tasks to the AGVs via radio frequency (RF). Instructions include stops, starts, changing speed, lifting, lowering, multi-point turns, reverses, diverging from the guide path, and interfacing with other material handling equipment and systems—both automated and static.

What Is a Laser Guided Vehicle

If you're searching for a fast, accurate, and reliable alternative to regular automated guided vehicles (AGVs), you may want to consider upgrading to laser-guided vehicles (LGVs). LGVs are a type of AGV that is equipped with a Laser Navigation Triangulation system, the same type of navigation technology that’s commonly used in automated forklifts. This means they navigate using a laser positioning system, unlike older iterations of AGVs, which usually rely on a sensor or software-based guidance system. Laser Guide AGVs ;may be the key to boosting your warehouse's efficiency, but to reap their benefits, you need to know what they are and how they work. So, what is a laser-guided vehicle, and what kind of benefits do they provide?

What Are Laser Guide AGVs? How Do They Work?

LGVs are AGVs with Laser Navigation Triangulation. They navigate their way around the warehouse using a laser positioning system. They have one or more two-dimensional navigation lasers, which are referred to as either a Navigation Device or Laser Emitter. These navigation lasers are elevated anywhere from 10 to 15 feet in the air and spin at several revolutions per second. The rotating sensors emit a continuous, fan-shaped beam of modulated light, which interacts with reflective strips of tape that are installed on the floor of the warehouse. These reflectors can be either flat or cylindrical, both of which have their own benefits and advantages. The LGV uses the signals it receives from the reflectors to triangulate the vehicle’s position. Depending on the manufacturer, some devices will calculate and correct their positioning 30 to 40 times per second. This makes them highly accurate and reduces the need for corrections.

The Advantages of Laser Guided Vehicles

Now that you're familiar with what a laser-guided vehicle is, you’d probably like to learn more about its benefits. LGVs are flexible, fast, and efficient. They can make a valuable addition to your warehouse if you need speed and accuracy or have a complex system with more than one destination and track. Additionally:

They're quick and easy to install. The installation isn't invasive, either. All you'll need to do is place reflectors around the facility. This means that LGVs won't affect the neatness of your warehouse.

They're incredibly accurate. The positioning algorithms are very advanced and allow for a position accuracy of + 5 mm.

They're fast. A high-speed LGV can reach up to 6.5/sec.

They're easy to maintain. The only regular maintenance you'll have to perform is keeping the reflectors clean.

They're easy to modify. You can quickly and easily change routes by modifying the software.

Magnetic Stripe Guide AGV

Magnetic Stripe Guide AGV is using soft magnetic backing material coated with rubber. It is mainly used as a ground magnetic navigation line to guide the operation of automatic navigation vehicle AGV, automatic trolley AGC, and trackless mobile shelves.

Applications & Instructions of AGV Navigation Magnetic Stripe Tape

Magnetic Stripe Guide AGV is mainly used as a ground magnetic navigation line to guide the operation of automatic navigation vehicle AGV, automatic trolley AGC, and trackless mobile shelves.

Patch-type magnetic strip tape

The floor is kept dry and free of dust. After the adhesive film is torn open, it is attached to the ground and kept for 8 hours to work( the imported glue for 12 hours ).

Buried magnetic strip tape

The ground needs to be slotted, and a 0.55mm error is reserved. The embedded magnetic strip tape is embedded and the work is completed. ;


QR code AGV logistics robots are intelligent warehouse materials handling robots developed by IKV. Their speed can reach 80m/min. are capable to transport the materials on the shelves from the huge storage areas to the designated places according to orders, facilitating operators to carry the secondary sorting and packaging out of the warehouse. The robots not only effectively improve the efficiency of warehouse inbound and outbound, but also reduce labor and error rates, and save operating costs. 
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